Research Report – Unit 3

 

 

Types of Research

There are plenty of differences between quantitative and qualitative research. In short, quantitative focuses on numbers and statistics, and quantitative focuses on detailed case studies and opinions.

Quantitative is derived from the word quantity – meaning a number of something specific. In research and data quantitative is statistical and is more general than qualitative. Quantitative is used to gain a general sense of an answer from more than one source, so it would include data such as percentages, pie charts and bar charts, and other forms of gathered data of that kind. An example of of quantitative data I might use for my research is asking what people’s favourite director is. This would be useful as it would give a general answer as to who people feel is most influential as a director in the media industry. Knowing who people feel is the most influential film director is useful when researching for my programme as it would show what people feel is relevant to the media in industry.

Qualitative is derived from the word quality – this means that qualitative research is focused more in depth on specific cases, and also on opinion. This kind of research comes in the form of documentaries, case studies, reviews, focus groups and any other form of data that gives a deep insight into one or a few people’s experience or opinion instead of general statistics (quantitative). An example of qualitative data that could be useful for my programme is a detailed case study into the production of famous films by famous directors, such as Pulp Fiction directed by the famous Quentin Tarantino. This would be useful for my programme as it would show what went into such controversial films and what factors of these films and how they were produced made certain directors so famous. Another example of qualitative data is I could give a presentation to a focus group about the documentary I propose to make, and gain their opinion. Their opinion could provide me with the detailed data of what they like or dislike about my idea, contributions they may have and how it could be improved. I could then take this information and apply it to the making of my documentary.

Methods of Research

Primary and secondary research have one main big difference – where they are sourced and how.

Primary research is research conducted by the team or person conducting the project themselves. Its original and specific so the information found is most relevant and useful, so the researchers can find out specifically what they’re after without having to sift through other data to find the answers they want. Its also up to date, rather than a few  days, weeks, months, years etc. old where the information may be inaccurate. This allows the data found through primary research to be accurate as possible. An example of primary research that could be useful for my programme is collecting data firsthand on what director people on my course or in my college think is the most influential and why. This is primary as its asking new and specific people. It’s useful for my programme research as it would give insight into what people of my age group think about the topic in question.

Secondary research is research conducted by other people and used by other teams and researchers. This research is often published for the public or specific teams with permission to use. Secondary research means saving time on research if it has been already conducted, so is useful for projects with time to manage. Secondary research is also less expensive than primary research as it costs less than going out and paying people for information and/or resources. An example of secondary research that might be useful for my programme research is gathering data on how many people in an area or group have seen any films by very famous directors. This would be useful for my research as it shows who has seen the controversial side of film and if people generally feel it is significant enough to spend time watching.

Purposes of Research

There are differences between audience, market, and production research.

Audience research is research into the target audience of your product or programme. You can classify them through finding out the general kinds of characteristics they may have and preferences, such as age, gender, interests, do they prefer indie films or blockbusters etc. By using audience research and classification you can target your product to suit the audience’s preferences and make it appealing to them. When researching my programme it would be useful to use audience research to find out what preferences they have in terms of what kind of film they watch. This would be useful as it could indicate whether or not they may have seen the films directed by the directors that I will research. I could also find out through audience research as to what methods of advertisement appeal to them most, so I can use these methods to promote my documentary such as TV adverts, radio adverts or billboards.

Market research is research into a certain market, and how that market usually targets an audience and gain consumers. That way a trade can know how to market their product or programme effectively. It also provides knowledge into how to gain an audience and profit.  When researching for my programme it would be useful to conduct market research into how to gain an audience through marketing, that way I would know how to conduct my research so that it is interesting to the target audience.

Production research is research into the actual production of a product or programme. It’s research into the process of how something goes from an idea to a finished project, and the steps and costs involved. By conducting production research I can find out how to conduct my actual research effectively without much cost or time implication. An example would be finding out how much research is usually made before making a programme. In addition to this, I would need to know the facts and figures of factors such as hiring a film crew, location hiring, editor hiring, equipment hiring and the cost of airing my programme.

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Marketing Terms

Key Term Definition
AIDA

 

An acronym for a model used in marketing and advertisement to define the process of consumer investment in a product, brand or category. It begins with Awareness, where the consumer becomes aware of the subject that is being advertised. Then Interest, where the consumer becomes interested in how the subject would benefit them. Then Desire, where the consumer develops a favourable view of the subject. Finally, Action wherein the consumer buys into the subject.
B2C

 

Stands for Business to Consumer – a direct transaction between a company and a consumer, usually referring to online use. For example, if someone were to buy a product off of a company such as eBay, it would be B2C because the transaction is direct.
B2B

 

This stands for Business to Business – a transaction between businesses, for example manufacturer to wholesaler, or wholesaler to retailer. Instead of defining interaction between a business and a consumer, it defines the interaction between businesses.
Public relations

 

When a famous person or organisation maintains their appearance or relationship with the public so that it is favourable to the public.
Direct marketing

 

The selling of a service or product directly to consumers, for example mail to door (often described as junk mail), calls, leaflets, catalogues, coupons, brochures, and emails. Its effective because it ensures that the consumer is notified of the service or product, rather than a for example a poster in which a consumer may not bother to read. The disadvantage of this however is this form of advertisement is often dismissed as junk.
Personal selling

 

Where a business uses people to promote and showcase a product or service face to face with the customer, which are usually highbrow or big investments. They present the product or service persuasively so as to gain the favour of the consumer. For example car selling where someone will want thorough details of the product, or perfume where someone may want to know what will suit them best according to a professional.
Sales promotion

 

A set of marketing activities to boost the sales of a product or service, such as schemes, discounts, freebies, commissions and incentives  to gain last minute purchases. It can be aimed at either a trade (retailers, wholesalers, distributors, C&Fs) or consumer.
Advertising

 

Drawing attention to a product or service to appear favourable and gain revenue.
Promotional Mix

 

 An element that is one of the 4 P’s in marketing plans which are the 4 key categories to a successful trade. Promotional Mix includes: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion.
Brand Personality

 

Human attributes that are consistent with a brand so that they appear relatable or favourable which makes the brand appear more favourable to the audience.
Promotion

 

When something, for example a service or product, or person, is supported and encouraged by an activity to achieve advancement.
Place

 

 Place in marketing terms is another one of the 4 P’s required for successful production. Place is the distribution of the product or service so that it can reach the consumer, both through physical and online stores (including wholesalers). It can be sectored into states, regions, towns and countries.
Price  Price in marketing terms is another one of the 4 P’s that are the key components to successful trade. Price refers to the cost element of trade – how much will it cost a trade to afford certain factors such as production, promotion, placement and the price of the service or product and ensure that they still make sustainable profit.
Product

 

The last of the 4 P’s that make up the marketing mix. The product is the tangible or intangible item such as goods or a service created to make both profit and to satisfy the needs of the customer.
Marketing Mix

 

 Marketing Mix is a concept that encompasses 4 necessary components to have a successful trade in business. This is made up of product, price, place and promotion. If all these elements are conducted well a business is more likely to be successful.
Brand Promotion

 

Brand promotion is when a brand reinforces their company to a consumer to appear more favourable than others with the aim of gaining their favour so they choose their brand other others, and may choose their products because of it’s brand.
Brand

 

 An identity for a company, organisation, group, etc. that distinguishes them so that people, i.e. customers, know who they’re buying from/associating with etc.
Added Value

 

 Added value is the price of which a product is sold, minus the cost it took to produce the product. The result figure is the added value in financial terms, as it depicts the profit of selling that product. However, value added is different. This means how valuable the product is to the customer and the value of the product in more general terms.
Target Market

 

 

The specific group of consumers/customers/audience that a product or market is aimed at. For example, the target market for a Bentley car would be a richer target market, with a bigger budget and a higher brow and classy lifestyle.
Market Segmentation  Market segmentation is when the target market is divided up into different types of potential customers based on different characteristics, in which a company will target different methods of marketing. For example a company may use different strategies to target a working class market to a upper class market.
USP

 

 USP stands for Unique Selling Point (or Proposition). It is the defining factor of a product, company or service that differentiates them from any other trade. It is the one benefit of that trade that others do not have in order to gain the favour of consumers. For example, the lowest price in comparison to others, higher quality, or it may be the first ever product, company or service of its kind.

 

Structure and Ownership Research Sheet

What are the main Media Sectors?

  • TV
  • Radio
  • Interactive Media
  • Computer Games
  • Films
  • Advertising

What is private ownership?

In media terms, private ownership is when the media sector is funded by advertising. This can include commercial breaks and also product placement in a show, for example a bottle of Coca Cola in Eastenders. An example of a channel that uses this is ITV. Companies will pay to have their adverts or products placements shown and that money goes towards funding for a media service such as a TV show.

What is public service?

Public service in media terms means that the public pay for the service through a fee. They are known as PSB’s (Public Service Broadcasting), for example the BBC. Every household that owns a television will pay an annual fee which goes towards funding PSB shows, and because it is paid for by the public there are no advert breaks.

What are multinationals?

Multinationals are companies/organisations/brands that operate in more than one country – for example, Disney is a worldwide company.

What are conglomerates?

Conglomerates are companies that are parent companies that own other smaller ones. They own more than one brand, for example 20th Century Fox, which owns small companies such as National Geographic.

What is Cross Media Ownership?

Cross Media Ownership is when a media company owns other media companies across more than one media sector. This company could own companies that are related to broadcast and cable television, film, radio, newspaper, magazine, book publishing, music, video games, and various online entities. For example, Time Warner are a cross media owning company.

What media is owned by Time Warner?

Time Warner is the world’s third largest entertainment industry, after Comcast and Walt Disney Studios. It is a cross media owning conglomerate, that owns media such as:

  • Warner Bros. music group
  • New Line Cinema
  • HBO
  • CNN
  • TIME magazine
  • DC Comics
  • CW Television Network
  • Warner Books
  • Warner Cable

Research a Media Sector

Gaming Sector

How many people are employed by this sector in the UK?

Around 20,000 people are employed in the video gaming industry in the UK.

Describe TWO or THREE of the more ‘typical’ jobs available in this industry

  • Animator – responsible for visuals and the animated portrayal of figures and features in the game, such as characters and the scene. They are the people who give life to the features of the game and are in charge of behaviour and movement.
  • Audio Engineer – responsible for creating the soundtrack and audio for the game, including music, sound effects to support the game action (such as gunshots or explosions), character voices and other expressions, spoken instructions, and ambient effects, such as crowd noise, vehicles or rain. They edit and mix it, and this can be as little as one or two people working long hours or a larger department.
  • Game Programmer – these are the people that are responsible for coding and fixing bugs, and develop customised tools for the game. Programming for a game takes a whole team of people, sometimes for just one part of the game.

Who are the ‘major companies’ in this sector in the UK?

In the UK, there are little to no major gaming companies founded, however there are gaming companies based in the UK, such as Ubisoft and Activision.

What do you think are the major challenges facing this sector today

I think one of the major challenges facing the gaming industry is demand. The demand for both new and engaging games are high, with over 30 million gamers based in the UK alone. Consumers of the gaming industry are always looking for new and exciting games to play so the gaming industry is constantly on the rise in terms of demand. Players also want games that are original and easy enough to play but also complex enough to not be boring so the gaming market is in high demand and the market is specific.

Another challenge facing the industry is the split between big gaming companies and smaller ones. The games developing industry is split into two halves – the big major companies, and the smaller indie developing companies. The major companies overtake the smaller ones because of their large popularity so its harder for smaller developers to be heard and gain anything from the games they produce. The Apple App store is constantly on the wait for bigger companies to release games, so they focus on promoting them rather than the smaller indie games. This is a challenge because it means that some games are harder to find for consumers.

Another challenge is production, development and marketing costs. Although creative game software is more easily accessible nowadays, the cost for making and selling games is increasing which is a challenge for budgeting and smaller companies with big ideas. Game technicalities such as CGI and animation with lots of tools is expensive so finding the money to fund these games is a challenge, so gaming companies need to market well in order to gain revenue to make more games.

What do you think are the prospects for this sector in the future?

The prospects for the future of the gaming sector is good. With more and more advancement in technology and relevance in gaming, the revenue and market for gaming should continue to grow rapidly over the next few years. Figures show that globally, the revenue for the gaming industry is said to grow by 4.8% between 2015 and 2020. The global revenue should increase during this time from $71.3 billion in 2015 to $90.1 billion in 2020. With more and more advancement in technology the prospects for gaming possibilities should grow and more features should become available.

 

 

Research Terms

Unit 3 Research Techniques for the Creative Media Industries

Understand the following research terms:

Research Term Detailed Definition (In your own words)
Secondary Research Research conducted by other people from a source other than your own that is already in existence, that you may use to further the quality and accuracy of your project.
Primary Research Research you have conducted yourself with your own methods to achieve a specific result required for your project or to improve the accuracy of it.
Quantitative Research Research measured by statistic data which pertains to numbers and general factors rather than and individual case, such as percentages, increase and decrease rates, popularity, etc.
Qualitative Research Research that investigates a particular case for a study rather than a large number, which goes into a lot of detail about that one specific case.
Audience Research Research conducted to find out specific answers from a certain audience to help provide answers that might relate to characteristics, preferences, etc.
Audience Classification Where the audience is segmented based on different factors, for example, age, gender, class, culture etc. This makes it easier to target what kind of answers will certain demographics.
Market Research The collected and explored analysis about a certain market which proves an insight to the methods used by that market to gain an audience and profit.
Production Research Research pertained to the product itself and how it is to be produced, the costs and processes involved, e.g. how much will the production of packaging cost, ingredients, etc. (as an example for if the product involved these factors)
Competitor Analysis The analysis and assessment of rival brands or companies in the market, the strengths and weaknesses so that a brand can improve themselves and know what to focus on to make themselves appeal better than the opposition.
Give an example of: Quantitative Secondary Research – Explain WHY this is a good example A good example would be box office figures for blockbuster movies. This is a good example as it provides an answer as to what kind of movies attract the most attention from the public, for example an action adventure blockbuster in comparison to a horror.
Give an example of: Qualitative Secondary Research – Explain WHY this is a good example A good example would be an analysis of a movie genre, for example horror. An analysis into conventions and stereotypes of a genre would be good as it provides an insight as to what factors to include if someone were to create their own horror film.
Give an example of: Quantitative Primary Research – Explain WHY this is a good example  A good example would be surveying your class on what their favourite movie genre is – this would be good and useful as it shows what people favour and is up to date.
Give an example of: Qualitative Primary Research – Explain WHY this is a good example A good example would be asking a friend to review an example movie, and their opinion on it. That way you have an example of a person’s deeper view on a certain film.