Skim and Scan Reading 1 – Media Magazine Article

Describe the article in as much detail as you can after SKIM reading

  • The article focuses on explaining how the role of men and women in the fifties has changed, and explains that it was very male dominant. The men were payed more than women for the same job and any major purchases had to be male approved.

Describe what you think are the three key points after SCAN reading

  • 1) That the roles of men and women have changed significantly since the 50’s, and that these roles were often portrayed through advertisements.
  • 2) That the males were dominant over the females and even female targeted adverts were made to be approved by men.
  • 3) Advertisements targeted at men were rarely set in a domestic environment and environments such as pubs or sporting events were a much more favoured setting.

Now that you have read the article in DETAIL, explain what the article is about

The article explains how the roles of men and women have progressed and changed over the decades, from the fifties to the nineties. It explains how in the fifties when TV advertisement started out that it was strongly male dominated. The men would make the most money in the household because the women worked less in order to look after the family, so even adverts targeted at women would feature a man, whether visually or in a voice over. If it was visual the man would often be clean cut, in a suit and in a domestic environment such as a kitchen. The men controlled the money so adverts would be made to appeal to men even if it was targeted at women.

Adverts targeted at men showed the men in a non-domestic setting, such as a pub or sporting event. However, the adverts targeted at men were similar to the ones targeted at women through the men being clean cut, and in suits. Although through the decades the image of men in advertising has changed, from sophisticated Bond style in the 60’s to the caring family guy in the 90’s.


Home Learning – Research a TV Advert


What product is the advert for?

The product this advert is for is Virgin Media TV.

What images, sounds and music does the advert use and WHY?

The advert uses dramatic music throughout the advert to emphasise the tone of the advert, which is dramatic and upbeat. The music reflects the mood of the advert to the audience and makes it stand out. There are sound effects used throughout, such as the smashing glass/mirrors, which is effective as it adds chaos and drama to the advert. There are images featured in the advert that are not photographic, such as the channel brand graphics circling one of the kids. The effect of this is it shows that the product is vast and makes it seem more complex.

What techniques does the advert use to try and appeal to the audience (Vance Packard theory)

The advert uses the humour technique of Vance Packard’s theory to appeal to the audience throughout the advert. The use of humour makes the advert memorable and making the audience laugh will spark interest in the brand. It tells the audience that the brand has a sense of humour which makes them a more appealing company. The advert is relevant and relatable to the audience which is shown through the humour.

What information does it give you about the product?

Throughout the advert Virgin Media tell us all of the functions that their product provides, through humour. It tells the audience subtly that their service provides the ability to cast films from a tablet, catch up on missed episodes, connect a laptop to the TV, and that there is a large variety of TV shows to watch provided by Virgin Media.

What ‘needs’ does the advert fulfil for the audience?

Task 1 – TV Advertising Report

In this report I will be discussing three separate adverts and the components that made them effective or troubling.

Advert 1:

The first advert I will de-construct is the official Christmas advert for Sainsbury’s in 2015. I chose this advert because it is a very detailed advert and there is a lot to de-construct. I will discuss structure, techniques, audience and regulation (if it apply’s to any of the three adverts)

Advert Structure:

In this advert, the advert is put together in a linear narrative sequence. The advert tells a story throughout of how Mog ruins Christmas but in the end Christmas is saved by the neighbours help. The structure is linear which makes the advert easy to understand for all audiences, and the audience for Sainsbury’s is very wide so it would have to be widely understandable. The advert is also anti-realist as it tells a fictional story rather than a real one, which would be a realist structure.

The advert conforms to Todorov’s theory, which is shown throughout the advert. At the beginning of the advert there is a state of equilibrium, where it is Christmas eve and everyone is sleeping soundly. Then there is a disturbance for a long period in the advert where Mog has a nightmare and ends up destroying the family home. The disturbance is then recognised when the fire brigade arrive and sets out the fire/smoke, and the family wake up. They are sad, but then there is a plan and the problem is solved when the neighbours turn up to help out. There is then a new equilibrium at the end of the advert  when it is Christmas day and the neighbours are gathering at the house. Everything is as normal and there are no longer any problems. These components show that the advert applies to Todorov’s theory.

The advert in some ways applies to Propp’s theory, but in some ways does not. Propp’s theory was that stories usually involve seven main characters -the hero, the villain, the dispatcher (sends hero on their quest), the helper (helps hero on quest), the donor (gives hero something to help their quest), the prize/princess (object/reward sought by the hero), the princess’ father (gives task to the hero, and is protective of the prize/princess), and the false hero (appears to act heroically and is mistaken for a/the hero). In this advert, there is only one of these types of character. There is the false hero, who is Mog. Mog is the character who causes the destruction in the first place, but when the fire brigade and family return home they congratulate Mog on alerting the fire brigade of the problem. The fire brigade could be perceived as the heroes as they save the day and solve the problem, which was that the house was destroyed.


Vance Packard’s theory is that there are seven main factors an advert can have to appeal to an audience. These factors are:

  • Nostalgia – refrencing to the past and the way things used to be, may sell the product or company as it shows the audience how a company may have grown.
  • Bandwagon – the idea that if the audience don’t buy into the company or their product, they will be left out.
  • Transfer/Fantasy – shows a person using the product and its result, for example in a perfume advert the person may use it and then the advert will show the effects of the product.
  • Humour – if an advert makes the audience laugh, it is more memorable and the audience may buy into the product.
  • Sense appeal – the advert may uses pictures or sound to appeal to the audience.
  • Testimonial  – a famous person may use a product in an advert – so surely it must be good if they’re using it? For example in recent advertisement Ellie Goulding advertises Pantene hair products.
  • Reward and punishment – the advert shows someone using a product and achieving something because of it, and then someone who doesn’t use it and they don’t achieve something.

In the Christmas advert by Sainsbury’s featuring Mog, three of these factors apply. The first factor that could apply is transfer/fantasy. Sainsbury’s is not mentioned in the advert until the very end when the advert finishes. However, the lifestyle shown and the characters involved sell Sainsbury’s to the audience because it’s as though if they shop at Sainsbury’s, they could achieve the luxury standard of living shown in the advert.

Another one of these factors that could apply is sense appeal – throughout the advert, Sainsbury’s use music and sound effects to demonstrate the mood of the advert. In the beginning of the advert, the music is calm to reflect the equilibrium state of the advert. It then changes as Mog wakes up and accidentally destroys everything to a more fast and panicked sound track. Doom music plays when the tree is destroyed, and then the music slows down when the fire brigade solve the problem.

In addition to this, the advert uses humour to appeal to the audience. It includes comic relief humour throughout, for example when Mog is spinning on the fan some viewers may find this entertaining and buy into the company.


The ASA (Advertising Standards Agency) is the UK regulator for advertisement, and they set the rules for what is acceptable and unacceptable to show in an advert. There are codes in which advertisers must oblige to when creating an advert, which the ASA put in place. This is to make sure that no advert can be deemed offensive, harmful or misleading to viewers. They are also the agency that people may appeal to if they have a problem with an advert.

In this advert, there are no codes breached and the advert was allowed to stay.


Maslow’s theory suggests that in society, humans have a hierarchy of needs that they need to survive and to sustain a good well being. This is a structure that has five main categories –  physiological needs (food, water, shelter, air), safety needs (from physical and emotional attack, diseases), social needs (affection, inclusion, control), esteem needs (respect from others and from self), and self-actualisation needs (encouraging talents, enjoying responsibilities, enjoying work, being a good person).

The target audience for this advert can be anybody, but the typical target audience for Sainsbury’s is family households and grown ups who need to put dinner on the table. However, the advert does not focus on the food itself but an emotional message instead, so the target audience falls into two categories of Maslow’s theory – physiological needs and social needs.

Advert 2:

For my second advert I chose the Phones 4 U advert for Halloween in 2011. I chose this advert because I thought it was effective, and there is a lot to de-construct, especially regarding techniques and regulation. I will also be going into detail about structure and audience in addition to this.


The structure in this advert is in a linear narrative sequence, as it is in chronological order and there are no flashbacks. This is effective as it makes the advert easier to understand, and given that it is only 30 seconds it needs to be short and snappy, not complex. The advert is also anti-realist as it’s fictional and not based on true events. The advert shows a woman walking to a car and a demon girl appearing to her to show her a phone deal. There is no need for flashback, and because the advert involves supernatural factors it is clearly not based on real events or a clip of a real event.

The advert applies to Todorov’s theory about plot, as at the start of the advert there is temporary equilibrium. This is then followed by a disturbance when the demon girl appears and we and the audience and the woman think she is a threat. The woman gets into her car, which plays into the plan factor of Todorov’s theory as she thinks this will solve her problem. This is resolved (kind of) when both the woman and audience realise she is no threat and the state of equilibrium is restored.

The advert does not fully apply to Propp’s theory, as it does not feature all seven of the characters described in Propp’s theory. However it does feature one of these characters which is the villain. The villain in this advert is the demon girl – despite not being a threat, she can still be perceived as a villain as she puts the other character in distress.


In this advert, three of the seven techniques theorised by Vance Packard are used. The first technique used is humour. This is displayed when there is a scary build up followed by the scary girl showing the woman the phone deal. The audience up until this point is made to feel scared of the demon girl, but they laugh when it turns out she’s only advertising a phone deal. The audience laugh at their previous fear (which is a convention of comedy horror – a genre reflected in this advert).

The other technique used is bandwagon/reward and punishment. It’s a combination of the two as when the advert finishes, the slogan ‘Missing Our Deals Will Haunt You’ promotes the idea that if audience doesn’t buy the product they’ll regret it, and that if they’re the only one who misses the deal they will be the odd one out. Also, the slogan is clever as using the term ‘haunt’ in a Halloween themed advert is effective as it emphasises this theme.


The ASA are an agency that deal with advert regulation, and this advert was heavily complained about. There were 601 complaints to the ASA about this advert, saying that the advert was ‘offensive, irresponsible and distressing’, because of the demon girl featured. The advert was deemed to break the CAP codes 1.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and the BCAP codes 32.3, 1.2, 4.1, 4.20, 4.2, and 5.1. The BCAP and CAP codes are the regulations that state what is and isn’t allowed in advertisement, which are in place so that adverts can be as appropriate and universal as possible. It also ensures that the advert causes no harm to viewers. The outcome of this particular example was that the ASA did not uphold the Phones4U case, because the advert was broadcast after 9pm and the ASA stated that because it was broadcast after 9pm it was less likely to be seen by children and would be less distressing at this time.


The target audience for this advert is aimed at younger people who are up to date with technology. Technology is a luxury and not a survival essential, and buying into famous technology brands makes some people feel included and respected in our society so the audience for this advert would fall into the category of social, esteem and self-actualisation needs.

Advert 3:

For my third advert I chose the 2016 advert for Volkswagen. I chose this advert as there is plenty to discuss for advertising techniques and audience. I will also discuss the structure of the advert.


The structure of this advert is also linear narrative like the other two, as it is set out in chronological order and there are no flashbacks. This is effective in this advert as it reflects the pace of the advert  – calm and undisturbed. If there was a flashback or if it weren’t in a linear sequence, it would take away the chilled out vibe that the advert reflects. The advert is anti-realist as it is not footage of real events, but it is created to seem realistic and as though what happens in the advert would ordinarily happen in real life (this refers to the transfer/fantasy technique also).

The advert does not apply to either Todorov’s or Propp’s theory. The plot of the advert is basic and there is no disturbance or plan – it is purely equilibrium. This is effective because it shows the audience that if they own the car in the advert, they too can drive in a state of equilibrium and have no trouble. The advert does not apply to Propp’s theory either, as there are no villains, heroes, or any of the other characters involved in Propp’s theory. The characters that are in the advert face no threat so there is no need for a villain or even a hero.


The advert features four of the seven techniques theorised by Vance Packard  – transfer/fantasy, humour, sense appeal, and reward and punishment. It uses transfer/fantasy as it shows the effects of car when the characters are driving it. They are presented as happy and cool because they own the car. It also uses humour, which is demonstrated when the father goes to fist bump the girl and she refuses. Some people may find this funny as it’s relatable to kids. Humour in an advert is effective as it makes the advert memorable and the audience is more likely to buy into the brand. In addition to this, the advert features sense appeal. The music used in the advert creates a chilled vibe and helps to present the car as a cool car to own, and that all the cool parents should go ahead and purchase it. The advert also uses the reward and punishment technique – in the beginning of the advert we see other kids getting out of cars and we see that they are unhappy, because their car is old and not as cool as the Volkswagen. We then see the Volkswagen in contrast and how happy the father and girl are because of it. The other kids are jealous of the girl and it tells the audience that if they don’t have the Volkswagen, they will also be unhappy, like the other kids.


The target audience for this advert is similar/the same as the previous advert. Cars are not an essential for survival so it doesn’t relate to the safety or physiological category of Maslow’s theory. However it does relate to the social, esteem and self-actualisation categories of Maslow’s theory because driving a new and trendy car is respected in society and a person is more likely to feel included in society driving a trendy car rather than an old one.


In my opinion, I think all 3 of the adverts I chose were successful, despite the second one having numerous complaints. This is because they were all effective and memorable adverts, that used effective techniques such as humour and empathy to capture the audience.

I think that the most effective advert was the Phones 4 U advert, because it used effective humour and it made the audience feel a variety of emotions such as fear and humour in a short time span which makes the advert more memorable. It was also effective as it was clearly used around Halloween time, given the scary theme which draws people in and therefore in my opinion makes it the most successful advert of the three.

Task 1 – File Formats Report

In this essay I will be discussing processes, applications and file formats that are commonly used in the media industry. I will write about the advantages and disadvantages of each, what they are, uses, and what they are supported by.


Bitmap (aka raster graphics) is a process used in graphic design. It is made up of pixels, so when the image is enlarged it becomes pixelated. This is the main difference between bitmap and vector processes. It is a format that is used for designing detailed graphic images and adjusting photography. It allows the user to create photo realistic images that are very complex with a multitude of layers.

Some examples of bitmap graphics are:




  • You see what you will get, and the paintbrush keeps in real time rather than having to wait to see the image update itself.
  • It uses file formats such as JPEG and PNG which are easily readable and transferable. It computes with  most bitmap based software, such as Photoshop, which makes the process easy to use.
  • With bitmap/raster files you can create photo-realistic graphic images.
  • You can scan and adjust pre-existing artwork/graphics if you scan it.
  • You can add multiple layers and make your design as detailed as you like.


  • Information must be stored for every pixel in the image and the file usually ends up large. This makes transferring it a slow process, and the file takes up a lot of space.
  • If you accidentally delete something on bitmap software, such as Photoshop, it can be difficult to retrieve.
  • If you flatten an image it cannot be undone.


Vector is the other main graphic process. It’s used for more simple graphics with less layers and detail. The main difference between vector and bitmap is that when vectors are enlarged they don’t pixelate. There are no pixels so the image resolution is the same. It’s a smaller file size, and is used for functions such as graphs, simple graphic images, charts, and other line images.


vector vector-graphic

3179nbq   tumblr_mjvbcmtku81s5dhdlo1_1280


  • The artwork can be saved and opened any time, and can continue to be edited. It does not finalise when saved temporarily.
  • The image size can be changed without decreasing quality. It’s not made up of pixels so it doesn’t pixelate.
  • They are fast and easy to transport as they typically have a small file size.


  • Vectors are typically used for simple purposes so it is difficult to produce detailed graphics and doing so is time consuming.
  • The more layers added the bigger the file gets which can be difficult to work with.

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a bitmap software program used for creating detailed graphic designs. It’s used commonly throughout the media industry and is mainly used for professional functions. Because it’s a bitmap program it is made up of pixels and to create designs it uses layers and there are large selection of functions available within the application. It is different to paint because Photoshop is available on most platforms whereas Paint only works with Microsoft. It also has a different set of features to Paint.


  • The program is neatly organised and easy to manage. The set up is neat making it easy to keep track of photos and graphics.
  • Most of the editing can easily be done and doesn’t often take more than one click to adjust a graphic, for example, reducing red eye in a photo. There are plenty of tools for a variety of uses making it one of the best known graphic software.
  • If it is a program the user is already familiar with then it is easy to use.
  • It gives you the ability to create and adjust complex and detailed graphic designs, and can be as customisable and personalised as the user wishes.


  • You cannot undo actions past a certain point, and if you accidentally delete something it can be difficult to get the project back to its original state.
  • It is a very expensive piece of software to download and is only worth the money if it is being used for professional purposes.

photoshop2x Adobe-Photoshop-CC-2015-v16.1.0-Inc-Update-2-ISO-Latest-Version-Download.jpg

Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Illustrator is an application for creating vector graphic designs. Because it is vector based, the images turn out in high resolution and are often used for purposes such as business logos, graphs and charts, photographs, and prints.


  • The graphics can be scaled to any size without losing resolution because it is a vector based program. This is because vector uses math based equations to be able to create designs.
  • It has an extensive range of tools to choose from, many of which can also be found in Photoshop, such as feathering and drop shadows.
  • There is a lot of options for text and typography as well as images.
  • It is easy to share and save as the files are smaller in comparison to Photoshop.


  • Creating photo-realistic images can be very time consuming as it is a vector programme so therefore it requires a large amount of layers in order to be photo-realistic.
  • It can take a lot of time to master as it is a complicated programme and the user will needs skills in order to use it successfully.

itjt21vl_400x400 7808159_orig

Adobe InDesign

Adobe InDesign is a software by Adobe for publishing. Unlike the other two applications discussed, InDesign is primarily used for writing based projects in the media industry. Typical examples of projects it’s used for today include things such as online magazines, books, flyers, brochures, and newspapers.


  • You can create documents with multiple pages, and split the workload in a team and then compile each piece together afterward. This is due to the Book feature. It’s ideal for those working in the publishing industry, and is useful for magazines, newspapers, and books.
  • The application can compute with having a multitude of layers, featuring long passages, alternate characters, manipulation, and open fonts. You can also add anchors and hyperlinks.


  • Because it is a vector program, it uses layouts so therefore images cannot be manipulated.


File Formats

Lossy and Lossless – Compression

Compression is when a file is reduced in bit size. It is useful to compress a file as it allows fast transfer, and it saves storage. If you were to compress a large number of files, it would save a massive amount of space so that your device  could contain even more files and would load pages and files faster.

Lossless compression is a form of compression where when the file is compressed,  no data is lost and the file remains in its orignal state. All parts of the file stay the same and are uneffected – the only thing that changes is the file size.

Lossy is the alternate form of compression – this form compresses the file and removes any data deemed redundant or useless. It does not affect the project itself, and usually will go unnoticed by the user. This type of compression is useful for video and sound, as it ‘cleanses’ what is unnecessary so that the file is smaller and works therefore more smoothly.


It can be a little hard to tell the difference, but you may notice the lossy version is slightly more pixelated.


The more an image is compressed, the more pixelated and less smooth it becomes.


JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group – the name of the committee that created JPEG) is a bitmap file format that uses lossy compression. It is the most common format, and is used mainly for digital photography and images. It can be used in any program that incorporates graphic images, as most platforms support JPEG files. Some examples of supporting applications are, Photoshop and Illustrator, as well as web browsers.


  • It’s suitable for colourful images as well as monochrome, as when it is compressed the colour changes only a small amount and is undetectable to the human eye.
  • The user can control how much the file is compressed, which makes the file versatile.


  • Every time a JPEG is compressed, the image quality decreases.
  • It takes longer to load on a page than a GIF file does.
  • The more a JPEG image is compressed, the more blurry and less sharp the edges become.


TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) is also a bitmap file format, and it is commonly used in the printing and publishing industry. Programs that support TIFF are lossless programs, such as publishing, image manipulation and page layout programs. One factor of TIFF is that it cannot be compressed – this is an advantage as it means that no matter how many times it’s saved, the quality wont decrease. But it’s also a disadvantage as this means the file size is typically larger than a JPEG file and takes up more space. However with the LZW algorithm the image can be manually compressed, but this means then the file will not be universally supported.


PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is also another bitmap file format, which when compressed is lossless so no quality is lost. It’s the replacement format for GIF and is now the most common lossless file format used. Graphic design applications such as Photoshop and InDesign support PNG, as well as a wide range of web browsers. However, a drawback is that PNG doesn’t support CMYK, used in printing. On the other hand PNG is useful as the file size is small and can contain multiple layers. Although PNG only supports some colours, and does not work with animation.


GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is another bitmap lossless file format. It’s easy to use and has become one of the most popular formats used across the internet. The colour palette however has its limits so is best used for files with few colours. Despite this, the format is well suited to images with solid areas of colour, such as logos, cartoons, shapes and simple graphics. Another advantage is that the file size is relatively small so is easily imported and viewed across the web. GIF also supports transparent backgrounds. However, GIF is dependant on internet connection and once a GIF has been finalised it cannot be edited. If the user needed to make even a minor adjustment, they’d have to start over.


PDF (Portable Document Format) is a file that can be either bitmap or vector, lossy or lossless. Adobe developed PDF, so Adobe programs e.g. Adobe Acrobat support PDF files. It’s used for document files and is good for magazine articles, product brochures, or flyers. Advantages of PDF are that they contain more than one page image which you can zoom in and out from. Also it is easily opened with any operating system due to its popularity, and the file size is negotiable because it supports a variety of compression algorithms. However some disadvantages are that editing PDF files is difficult and not free, as they require Adobe software to be edited which costs money. It can also be difficult to work with as it is only supported by Mac and Windows devices.

Delish Packaging Analysis


Packaging 1 – The Food Doctor

On this packaging I like the colour themes – on the first one the main colours are green and ivory, and on the second the colour themes are light and dark pink. I like these colours because they are natural and fit the organic and healthy theme for the product. If the colours were bright red and blue for instance, it would be unnatural and wouldn’t conventionally fit with what the product is.

The fonts on this packaging are mainly bold and easy to read. This is effective because it means that customers are more likely to buy the product if they can understand what it says. If the font was unclear and too fancy, people are more likely to not buy the product.

On this packaging, I like the image design as its quirky and stands out. It’s effective as crisp thins with the stalk make it look like a branch which emphasises the organic food theme.

I like the logo on the packaging as its bold and stands out. It’s effective as it makes the font clearer and easier to spot off the shelf. The colour of the logo on both packaging designs is darker than the image so they both stand out well. It’s also in the shape of an apple which applies to the theme of organic food as apples are organic.


Packaging 2 – Dried Fruit

On this packaging, I like the colours because they’re bright and stand out but not so much that it looks unnatural. It’s also effective because the colours of the graphics compliment the colours of the logo on all three package designs. The background colours are pastel which makes the graphic images bolder and is therefore effective.

The fonts are bold and easy to see, and there isn’t much writing to read which makes it more applicable to a wider audience that might not want to do much reading when buying a snack.

The image design is effective because it is photographic and not graphic which is effective as it shows what the actual ingredients are. It is also a nice contrast to the matte style of the logo.

The logo is effective because of its big and easy to spot which makes it stand out on the shelf. In addition to this, the logo is effective because the font is in a scratchy style of font which fits the natural and organic theme compared to a font that is bolder and/or urban.


Packaging 3 – Terra’s Garden

The colours on the packaging are effective because they are bright and complimentary to the rest of the packaging, which makes the product stand out more and is more eye catching. On the first package, the pink on the packaging compliments the veg in the bag that is also pink.

The fonts are varied  –  they vary in colour and design, which is effective and it makes the packaging more interesting and presentable. The flower and bird graphics that are used as an apostrophe are effective as they look quirky and cool, and they also fit the natural theme.

The packaging is also partially see through which is effective and appealing to customers as they can see what they’re buying and not just guessing what it looks like. Customers are more likely to buy the product if they know exactly what they’re buying.



Packaging 4 – Organic Earth

The colours used on this packaging are effective because they are bright but not unnatural, so they are eye catching to customers. The bright colours of the graphic images contrast the black background which makes them stand out.

The fonts and text are small but this is okay because the images already tell the customers what flavour the product is without them having to read it.

The graphic image design is effective because it is simple and quirky which catches the eye of the customer and emphasises what flavour the product is. The fact that the graphic design stands out also makes the product easy to spot on the shelf and is easily recognisable.



Packaging 5 – Ella’s Kitchen

The colours used in this packaging are bright and colourful which is effective because they fit in with the baby demographic. The product is organic baby food so bright, fun colours ensure that the design is suitable for it’s target audience.

The fonts used are big and in child-like writing, which targets the audience well so it is in a fun and easy to read style. The colour of the writing is also the same on each design and the colour compliments and shows up well on the product.

The graphic images also fit the children’s demographic as they are child like and simple. They aren’t too fancy but fit in well with the rest of the packaging and go with the overall style.

The logo is in the same style as as the rest of the text so it doesn’t complicate the design or make it too busy. It is big and obvious so it’s easy to spot off the shelf.


Packaging 6 – Cereal

The colours used in this packaging are effective because they are bright and are distinct.  The red colour of the mouth compliments all the other design colours and helps the packaging stand out and makes it recognisable.

The fonts used are simple and easy to read which targets the demographic audience as they are likely to be kids. The main text is big so its easy to tell what kind of cereal it is rather than scanning the package looking for text.

The graphics of animals eating the cereal is effective because its fun and appealing for kids to look at and makes the packaging more targeted at kids. They are also eating the product which is cereal, which is effective because it makes the product look appealing to eat.

The logo is small and not very obvious, but this is effective as it makes the customer look for it and therefore pay more attention. Also the customer knows the products are all from the same line as they all have the same basic design – the animal, cereal and placement of the main text.


Task 1 – Pre-Production Report

Pre-Production Report Essay


Pre-production is all of the planning and organising made before the production of a video/advert/film. It is important because good planning and organisation ensures that the making of the product goes smoothly and comes out well. When making a TV advert, it is important to have planned and structured everything out otherwise it will not go well and money spent by companies to advertise their product might be lost and time and effort might be wasted. Planning and pre-production help advert productions to run smoothly because it ensures that every detail is covered and nothing is missed out on or done badly.

There are plenty of things that may go wrong if an advert is not pre-produced and planned properly. For example, budgeting may be calculated wrong and a company may end up spending more than they thought and they lose profit. They may not organise the location of the advert properly and be unable to use it. They may not have back up for if they lose footage or the weather may be bad, or they may not have organised people to step in if the cast or crew is unavailable on the day. These are just a few examples. An example of when things have gone wrong in pre-production is in Alien 3. In Alien 3 they didn’t plan out a script properly and were set back majorly in production.

Finance, Budget and Personal SP

The money to fund an advert mainly comes from the company itself that want to advertise their product, but they can also apply for other companies that specialise in funding to help with budgeting costs, for example (  This depends on how big the company is and how much profit they make. A company such as Apple or Coca Cola don’t need to apply for help with funding, as they are such huge companies they will have independent departments that deal with advertisement. For example, Coca Cola are committed to high standard advertising and spend over 3 billion yearly on advertisement. However, a smaller company, such as Delish, would have to apply for help with advertising on TV as they don’t have enough to fund the advert entirely by themselves.

How much an advert costs to produce and air depends on a variety of factors. For example, when producing an advert, it would cost less to shoot actual footage than to have an entirely CGI advert (e.g. the Andrex advert). How much it costs also depends on the airing, and how long the advert is. The longer the advert, the more expensive. It also depends on when its aired – autumn advertisement is more expensive than summer, and the time of day also is a factor of how much and advert costs. Adverts cost the most to air between 6-7pm as this is the time of day where most people are likely to watch TV. In addition to this cost also depends on region – an advert in an area I.e. south-west will cost less than a nationally aired advert. On a local TV station, a typical 30 second advert would cost £200-£1500, but a nationally aired advert of the same length would cost an average of just over £300k. It also depends what TV show the advert is shown between – an advert slot between a popular TV show, such as The Big Bang Theory, would cost an average of just over £260,000 to air.

The money would be spent on pre-production and planning, producing, and airing. Some producing costs might be paying for cast and crew, location arrangement, lighting, or if there’s no shoot the money would be spent on the digital production. Examples of people needed to be employed may be actors/cast, film crew, editors, directors, lighting management, supervisors, and technicians. You could find these people by setting up a page asking for applicants, for example ( ) allows people to advertise spaces/roles available in advert production. You would decide on who to employ by narrowing down applications to who is best suited to each job. You would decide based on experience, qualifications and examples of other projects candidates have been involved in. You would make sure everyone kept to production deadlines by inquiring on how far they’ve got and giving them a fair amount of time to complete their work.

Equipment, Materials and Location

To produce an advert, you would need a variety of materials and equipment:

  • Cameras (if the advert involves shooting footage)
  • Editing software/hardware/programs
  • Scripts
  • Schedules
  • Storyboards
  • Risk assessments
  • Tripods
  • Lighting
  • Set materials, for example props (a beverage advert such as Oasis would feature a bottle of Oasis), and costume (there might be a certain character required to wear a certain outfit)

The equipment can be either hired or purchased depending on the budget of the advert. If the company advertising something are small and not as well as known as other companies – for example Delish is a smaller company than Apple – then equipment is more likely to be hired rather than purchased because they will have a smaller budget. You might borrow equipment from a website, I.e. If a company buys their own camera, the prices would be £300 and up, going into the thousands. Depending on your choice of location, you may or may not need to ask permission to film at certain locations. In general public you are allowed to film without permission, but you may need to choose a specific area to film and make others aware of this in case people don’t want to be caught on camera or if you specifically don’t want random strangers in shot. However, at other locations, for example in buildings or closed off sites, you may need to receive permission from authorities to film or record material there.

The Law

 As a professional advertiser, there are a lot of laws and regulations to consider and abide by when in the work place, including advertisement. The ASA (Advertising Standards Agency), are in charge of these rules and regulations that apply specifically to advertisement. The BCAP code outlines these regulations. The rules come under a selection of categories, for example here are a few:

  •  Compliance (i.e. 1.3.1. Advertisements must not state or imply that a product can legally be sold if it cannot.)
  • Recognition of Advertising (i.e. 2.3 The use of a title, logo, set or music associated with a programme that is broadcast on that medium needs special care. The audience should quickly recognise the message as an advertisement.)
  • Misleading Advertising (i.e. 3.1 Advertisements must not materially mislead or be likely to do so.)
  • Harm and Offence (i.e. 4.1 Advertisements must contain nothing that could cause physical, mental, moral or social harm to persons under the age of 18.)
  • Children (i.e. 5.1 Advertisements that are suitable for older children but could distress younger children must be sensitively scheduled (see Section 32: Scheduling).
  • Environmental Claims (i.e. 6 Advertisements must not suggest that their claims are universally accepted if a significant division of informed or scientific opinion exists.)

These are just a few examples out of a couple dozen sections in the BCAP code. An example of when the ASA may have affected a production is the Rustler’s advert in 2011. They were appealed to because the audience felt the advert was sexist and misleading. The company got in trouble but it was not banned, but it was moved to be aired after the 9PM watershed instead of being aired in the day time.


BCAP Code 0712

Alien 3 Making Of:

Advertising funding link and info:

Andrex advert:

Camera equipment hiring: